Indian National Movement Notes In Tamil Pdf 12: A Brief Overview of the History of India's Freedom Struggle
The Indian National Movement was a series of political and social movements that aimed to end the British colonial rule in India and establish an independent nation. The movement spanned from the late 19th century to the mid-20th century and involved various leaders, organizations, ideologies, and methods of agitation.
In this article, we will provide a brief overview of the main phases and events of the Indian National Movement, based on the notes available in Tamil Pdf format. These notes are useful for students preparing for various competitive exams such as TNPSC, UPSC, SSC, etc.
The Early Phase (1885-1905)
The early phase of the Indian National Movement was marked by the formation of the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1885 by A.O. Hume, a retired British civil servant. The INC was initially a moderate and loyalist organization that sought to voice the grievances of the educated Indians and demand constitutional reforms from the British government. Some of the prominent leaders of this phase were Dadabhai Naoroji, W.C. Bonnerjee, Surendranath Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, etc.
The early phase also witnessed some regional and local movements that challenged the British policies and administration. For example, the Indian Association was founded in 1876 by S.N. Banerjee and Anand Mohan Bose in Bengal to protest against the Vernacular Press Act and the Ilbert Bill. The Swadeshi Movement was launched in 1905 to oppose the partition of Bengal by boycotting foreign goods and promoting indigenous industries.
The Extremist Phase (1905-1917)
The extremist phase of the Indian National Movement was characterized by the emergence of radical nationalists who advocated more aggressive and revolutionary methods to overthrow the British rule. They were dissatisfied with the moderate approach of the INC and its failure to achieve any significant concessions from the British. Some of the prominent leaders of this phase were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghosh, etc.
The extremist phase also witnessed some violent and armed rebellions against the British authority. For example, the Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar were two secret revolutionary societies that carried out assassinations and bombings in Bengal. The Ghadar Party was formed by Indian immigrants in North America to incite mutinies among Indian soldiers. The Komagata Maru incident was a failed attempt by a group of Sikhs to enter Canada on a Japanese ship in 1914.
The Gandhian Phase (1917-1947)
The Gandhian phase of the Indian National Movement was dominated by the leadership and ideology of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi introduced the concept of Satyagraha, or non-violent resistance, as a means to challenge the British rule. He mobilized millions of Indians from different sections of society to participate in mass movements that combined political, economic, social, and religious issues.
Some of the major movements led by Gandhi were:
The Champaran Satyagraha (1917) to protest against the exploitation of indigo farmers in Bihar.
The Kheda Satyagraha (1918) to demand relief for peasants affected by famine and taxation in Gujarat.
The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) to boycott British institutions, laws, goods, and services.
The Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934) to defy the salt tax and other laws imposed by the British.
The Quit India Movement (1942-1944) to demand immediate independence from Britain during World War II.
The Gandhian phase also saw the rise of various other leaders and organizations that contributed to the freedom struggle. Some of them were:
Jawaharlal Nehru, who became Gandhi's trusted lieutenant and later the first Prime Minister of independent India.
Subhash Chandra Bose, who formed the Indian National Army (INA) with the help of Japan to fight against the British.
B.R. Ambedkar, who championed the cause of social justice and upliftment of Dalits or aa16f39245